(almond tree), it seems impossible to discover with precision whether Luz and Bethel represent one and the same town—the former the Canannite, the latter the Hebrew name—or whether they were distinct places, though in close proximity. The most probable conclusion is that the two places were, during the times preceding the conquest, distinct, Luz being the city and Bethel the pillar and altar of Jacob, that after the destruction of Luz by the tribe of Ephraim the town of Bethel arose. When the original Luz was destroyed, through the treachery of one of its inhabitants, the man who had introduced the Israelites into the town went into the “land of the Hittites” and built a city which he named after the former one (Judges 1:26). Its situation, as well as that of the land of the Hittites,” has never been discovered, and is one of the favorable puzzles of scripture geographers.
Smith's Bible Names Dictionary (1866)